The Council’s Area
There are three Wards in the Community – Aber-soch; Llanengan (including the village), Bwlchtocyn, Cilan, Sarn Bach; Llangian (including the village), Mynytho and extending to Nanhoron. Afon Horon River is the boundary between the Community Councils of Llanengan and Botwnnog.
A Brief History
Llŷn is the name of the historic hundred in north-west Wales which roughly corresponds with today’s Llŷn Peninsula.
Llŷn is a hundred, which is surrounded by the sea on both sides, facing south-east Ireland over the Celtic Sea. It borders Arfon and Eifionydd in the east. It is believed that the name ‘Llŷn’ is derived from ‘Leinster’ and that immigrants from that part of Ireland settled in Llŷn from the Iron Age onwards.
The hundred was divided into three commotes, namely Dinllaen, Cymydmaen and Cafflogion. Every commote had a court which was held in the demesne – Nefyn in Dinllaen, Neigwl in Cymydmaen and Pwllheli, then a small mediaeval town, in Cafflogion. The other ‘towns’ included Aber-soch (Soch), Castellmarch and Penyberth. There was a monastic community or an early Celtic monastery in Aberdaron and on Bardsey (Ynys Enlli).
Llŷn was home to a Celtic tribe called Gangani. There are a number of fortresses in Llŷn which belonged to them, for example ‘Portin-llaen’, ‘Carn Fadryn’ and ‘Tre’r Ceiri’ on Yr Eifl (Rivals). The last lies on the border between Llŷn and the hundred of Arfon.
Commote of Cafflogion
Cafflogion was one of three commotes (a geographical area and administrative unit in Mediaeval Wales) in the hundred of Llŷn, kingdom of Gwynedd. It is said that it was established by Afloeg, one of Cunedda Wledig’s (fl. fifth century, an important early Welsh leader and the progenitor of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd) sons. It was situated on the shores of Cardigan Bay, between St. Tudwal’s Islands and Afon Erch (river, Abererch). The Commote of Cymydmaen was situated to the west of Llŷn’s extreme promontory and to the east the third commote, Dinllaen.
The word ‘cymydog’ (neighbour) derives from commote, literally “one who lives in the same commote as you”.
The Commote of Cafflogion, like its neighbours, is sited on one of the pilgrim paths to Bardsey but it was not as busy as the northern path through Dinllaen. The ecclesiastical centres included Penrhos, Llanfihangel Bachellaeth, Llaniestyn, Llanbedrog and Llangïan.